Howden, James

Howden, James
b. 29 February 1832 Prestonpans, East Lothian, Scotland
d. 21 November 1913 Glasgow, Scotland
Scottish engineer and boilermaker, inventor of the forced-draught system for the boiler combustion chamber.
Howden was educated in Prestonpans. While aged only 14 or 15, he travelled across Scotland by canal to Glasgow, where he served an engineering apprenticeship with James Gray \& Co. In 1853 he completed his time and for some months served with the civil engineers Bell and Miller, and then with Robert Griffiths, a designer of screw propellers for ships. In 1854, at the age of 22, Howden set up as a consulting engineer and designer. He designed a rivet-making machine from which he realized a fair sum by the sale of patent rights, this assisting him in converting the design business into a manufacturing one. His first contract for a marine engine came in 1859 for the compound steam engine and the watertube boilers of the Anchor Liner Ailsa Craig. This ship operated at 100 psi (approximately 7 kg/cm2), well above the norm for those days. James Howden \& Co. was formed in 1862. Despite operating in the world's most competitive market, the new company remained prosperous through the flow of inventions in marine propulsion. Shipbuilding was added to the company's list of services, but such work was subcontracted. Work was obtained from all the great shipping companies building in the Glasgow region, and with such throughput Howden's could afford research and experimentation. This led to the Howden hot-air forced-draught system, whereby furnace waste gases were used to heat the air being drawn into the combustion chambers. The first installation was on the New York City, built in 1885 for West Indian service. Howden's fertile mind brought about a fully enclosed high-speed marine steam engine in the 1900s and, shortly after, the Howden-Zoelly impulse steam turbine for land operation. Until his death, Howden worked on many technical and business problems: he was involved in the St Helena Whaling Company, marble quarrying in Greece and in the design of a recoilless gun for the Admiralty.
Principal Honours and Distinctions
Howden was the last surviving member of the group who founded the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland in 1857.
Howden contributed several papers to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland.
Further Reading
C.W.Munn, 1986, "James Howden", Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography, Vol. I, Aberdeen.

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • James H. Howden — James Henry Howden (October 11, 1860 1938) was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba as a member of the Conservative Party from 1903 to 1915, and was a cabinet minister in the government of Rodmond P …   Wikipedia

  • Howden Minster — Howden Minster, East Riding of Yorkshire …   Wikipedia

  • Howden Ganley — James Howden Ganley (né le 24 décembre 1941 à Hamilton, Nouvelle Zélande) est un ancien pilote automobile néo zélandais. Il a notamment pris le départ de 35 Grands Prix de Formule 1 entre 1971 et 1974. Ganley a inscrit un total de 10 points en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Howden Ganley — Automobil /Formel 1 Weltmeisterschaft Nation: Neuseeland  Neuseeland Erster Start: Großer Preis von San Marino 19 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Howden Ganley — James Howden Ganley (nacido el 24 de diciembre de 1941 en Hamilton, Nueva Zelanda) es un ex piloto de carreras de Nueva Zelanda. El participo en el 41 Campeonato mundial de Grandes Premios de Fórmula 1, debutando el 6 de marzo de 1971, sumando un …   Wikipedia Español

  • James Howden MacBrien — Major General Sir James Howden MacBrien KCB CMG DSO CStJ (30 June 1878 ndash; 5 March 1938) was a Canadian soldier and Chief of the General Staff, the head of the Canadian Militia (renamed the Canadian Army in 1940) from 1923 until 1927. He also… …   Wikipedia

  • Howden — This is a medieval English locational surname. It originates from the small market town of Howden, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, some twenty miles from the ciry of York. The origin of the place name, and hence the later surname, is heafod denu …   Surnames reference

  • Howden Ganley — Former F1 driver image size = 150 pixels = 150 Name = Howden Ganley Nationality = flagicon|New Zealand New Zealander Years = F1|1971 F1|1974 Team(s) = BRM, Iso Marlboro, March, Maki Races = 41 (35 starts) Championships = 0 Wins = 0 Podiums = 0… …   Wikipedia

  • John Cradock, 1st Baron Howden — (1759–1839), was a British peer and soldier.In 1777, he was appointed a Cornet in the 4th Regiment of Horse, which in 1779 he exchanged to become an Ensign in the Coldstream Guards, and in 1781 he was promoted a Lieutenant with the rank of… …   Wikipedia

  • Robert Howden — (born March 28, 1917 in Durban, Natal; died May 1, 2004 in Durban North, KwaZulu Natal) was a South African cricketer who only made three first class appearances. Numerous members of his family have also played cricket, including former South… …   Wikipedia

  • Mount Sir James MacBrien — Elevation 2,759 m (9,052 ft) [1] Prominence …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”